The period Germany was ruled by the Nazi’s is referred to as the Third Reich. This began on the 30th of January 1933 when Adolph Hitler became the chancellor of Germany.
Once he was appointed as Fuhrer he made sure he had complete control of the country in his hands by appointing his secret police the SS and by adopting a Dictators role he dealt with any opposition to his opinions and beliefs by terror and violence.
Among his most famous beliefs, he believed that the Germanic people most purely represented the Aryan race and that all other races were inferior. In correlation liberal, socialist and communist competition were dealt with and the Jews were held as political prisoners or worse yet killed.
In contrast to these points, Hitler did help Germany to regain prosperity and end mass unemployment during the Great Depression. This drastically increased the popularity of his regime and helped his dictatorship go mostly unchallenged.
Bill Brandt gained success through capturing a variety of subjects which include surrealist nudes, industrial workers and landscapes.
He moved to England in 1931 to shoot images for his project “ The English at home” covering industrialisation. This transition landed Brandt at the heart of the photojournalistic industry, where he captured images of important stories for magazines. One of his most famous series was Coal Mining and Industrial northern England.
Brandt’s series on Coal Mining was extremely effective at communicating the struggles of Industrial life, as well as revealing the despair felt by the workers. Because of this I believe his intention was to recreate the moods and tensions of the Great Depression through his imagery, which I believe he did.
Edward Hopper (July 22,1882 – May 15,1967) was a successful American realist painter and print maker. He was particularly well know for his oil paintings, although he was talented as a watercolourist and print maker. His paintings mainly depict rural landscapes and scenes of solitary subjects. These scenes and subjects communicate Hopper’s feeling toward civilisation and modern American life.
Charles Sheeler was an American born Artist/Photographer form Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commonly known for his contributing works to Photography as well as the Modernist and Precisionist Art movements of the 20th Century. In affiliation to his Photography Sheeler’s Art was vastly inspired by his images of industrial landscape and machinery which were also depicted in his paintings.
Django Reinhardt (January 1910 – 16 May 1953) was a pioneering virtuoso Belgian jazz guitarist and composer of the thirties. Often regarded as the first important European jazz musician who made major contributions to the development of the idiom, he is also revered by guitarists worldwide as among the foremost exponents of the instrument. Reinhardt invented an entirely new style of jazz guitar technique (sometimes called ‘hot’ jazz guitar) that has since become a living musical tradition within French gypsy culture.
Alonzo “Lonnie” Johnson (February 8, 1899 – June 16, 1970) was an American blues and jazz singer/guitarist and songwriter who pioneered the role of jazz guitar and is recognized as the first to play single-string guitar solos. Johnson was not only one of the few black blues musicians invited to be ‘guest featured’ on a number of jazz recording sessions, he was also one of the only classic 1920’s blues artists to have a revived a high-charting career after WWII.
Ornette Coleman (born March 19, 1930) is an American saxophonist, violinist, trumpeter and composer. He was one of the major innovators of the free jazz movement of the 1960s. Coleman’s timbre is easily recognized: his keening, crying sound draws heavily on blues music.
Olga Samaroff (August 8, 1880 – May 17, 1948) was a pianist, music critic, and teacher. Her second husband was conductor Leopold Stokowski.
Darius Milhaud (4 September 1892 – 22 June 1974) was a French composer and teacher. He was a member of Les Six—also known as The Group of Six—and one of the most prolific composers of the 20th century. His compositions are influenced by jazz and make use of polytonality. Darius Milhaud is to be counted among the modernist composers.
The 1930’s began after the devastating Wall Street Crash of 1929, which was the most damaging stock market crash in American history. The decade leading towards this was known as the roaring twenties and rightly so as it was a time of luxury and excessive wealth, although in contrast was responsible for the economic downfall to come. The crash marked the beginning of the Great Depression which left all Western Industrialized countries affected and continued for the next ten years.
The wealthy minority of the population barely managed after their loss, where as the majority couldn’t afford to lose anything. Because of this people couldn’t afford to purchase commercial products or spend money in general. This resulted in the closure of shops and factories which leading to heavy unemployment. At this time there were no systems in place for the unemployed, fortunately charities were there to help provide food and shelter for the needy.
In contrast to these charities the American government did very little to help the population. The republican president in power, Herbert Hoover did not believe the economic downfall would persist.
This series of photographs is a documentation of your average day down at the trails. Which will hopefully help to give you a better understanding of the building and maintenance that goes into these locations, as well as the riding. The spot these images were shot at is a prime example of a well established and groomed set of trails, but constructing a place like this takes many years and hands. And many other hurdles along the way can make the job a lot more time consuming and difficult too.
As you arrive at the trails you are instantly greeted by the short rural hilltop stroll down to the jumps. The scenic surroundings of the woods look down over Brighouse and farmers fields populated by cattle which provides the perfect setting for the trails. The setting is a really relieving escape for me and the others, and helps us to avoid over populated skate parks and escape the city. Not only is it an escape for us all, but also a canvas and medium for us to construct our next desires, the only limitation we have is our imaginations.
When we first take place at the trails, the first job of the day is to remove the tarpaulins from the jumps we intend to ride on that day, if not all of them. These tarpaulins cover every other take off and landing in the woods and help to preserve everyone’s hard work and reduce weather damage. As the clay we use is very dense and heavy, extensive rain can cause the jumps to erode or in some cases collapse. Although it is an expensive method, they are essential at saving ourselves days to weeks worth of work fixing the jumps.
Whilst removing the tarps we check over the sets in order to asses damages caused during previous sessions. This damage will be fixed before riding to maintain a smooth riding surface and to prevent creating more work for the future. It is our priority to keep all the riding surfaces smooth and fluid as you reap what you sew.
When fixing and riding the jumps a good water supply is an absolute necessity. Whilst doing this water must be applied to the surface your fixing, as well as mixed through the soil used for fixing to gain a tacky consistency that will stick effectively. As well as this the jumps need to be watered prior to riding, as dry/crumbly jumps will quickly become damaged. Attaining a good water supply is a mandatory but can be extremely difficult to find when digging on somebody else’s land. Fortunately our woods is home to a pond and other water sources, drainage routes are in place to drain puddles into designated storage pits and also water barrels for when pickings are slim in summer.
After this the final task before riding is to unlock the start gates. These help to prevent unwanted visitors riding the jumps in our absence. To an outsider this may seem an extreme measure for piles of dirt, but when a life times worth of hard work and determination lies in a spot you become very territorial.
There is a very small minority of people that have the drive or want to create something like this or even lift a spade at a spot, but the great misfortune lies In the fact everybody wants to ride at one. The term ‘no dig no ride’ is thrown around a lot at trails and is enforced by many in order to motivate people to contribute to a scene rather than just take from it. Many BMXers find this difficult to understand which causes a lot of arguments, disagreements.
On the brighter side of things this helps to keep the woods how we like it. A collection of our close friends, who are like minded in their ambitions and priorities. And most of all enjoying ourselves, riding together and being present in a paradise created by us, for us.